The Evolution of Open Source

A new generation of companies offer software, smarts, and service

Much of the talk about enterprise open source
software centers around its potential, with upbeat projections
offered for the next year, the next five years, and beyond. But
such forecasts overlook a simple fact: open source is already
well-established in the enterprise. Moreover, adoption goes way
beyond Linux. Here’s a look at the
state of the penguin in information technology. The bottom line:
the penguin is cool.

Let’s get one thing straight: open source software
isn’t “on its way” into the enterprise. It
isn’t creeping in, slowly but steadily; it isn’t
sneaking in the back door; and it isn’t a cheap alternative
to Windows. No, open source software is
well-established in the enterprise, and adoption goes way beyond

In a Forrester Research report issued earlier this year, 75
percent of large enterprises surveyed said they’re either
using or plan to use open source software, up from 60 percent in
2004. Another survey, one from IDC, reported that half of the
developers surveyed claimed their employers’ use of open
source was rising. In general, the consensus is that most
enterprises are already making use of open source and plan to
expand adoption to include more packages in more places. As
penetration increases, the cost savings add up, too, and executives
at all levels are taking notice.

But the rapid arrogation comes with some growing pains.
Enterprise customers expanding beyond the usual suspects are
wrestling with familiar issues, including sourcing, integration,
maintenance, policy management, and support — issues
typically associated with proprietary software. For open source to
progress and accelerate, open source must evolve to satisfy the
concerns of the enterprise. Fortunately, a number of third-party
companies now address the unique challenges of the wide deployment
of open source.

The Problem

The adoption of open source can be a lot of work, especially as
enterprises deploy a broader set of open source solutions. An
enterprise using the top five or so open source products (say,
Linux, the Apache HTTP
MySQL and "i">PostgreSQL, JBoss, and the many scripting languages) may
find satisfactory services and support, but finding equivalent
offerings for the more specialized applications can be a major

There are significant sourcing and selection issues, too. How do
you choose the right open source package from a plethora of
options? How reputable is the source of the package? When buying
proprietary commercial software, an enterprise typically adheres to
well-established procurement processes; however, the same processes
have generally not been applied to open source solutions. Instead,
open source software comes into enterprises directly, downloaded by
developers, bypassing procurement entirely. The result can spawn
legal headaches. For example, is the package license compatible
with its intended use?

Support can be particularly vexing, with companies juggling
support contracts with dozens of different commercial open source
companies or trying to tackle problems internally without the
proper expertise, either one a risky and time-consuming

Open source software also introduces technical challenges. Since
open source is highly componentized, technical staff often need to
deploy and integrate a variety of open source products to address a
particular problem. Just think of the common LAMP stack: its
components tend to change frequently and independently, requiring
additional effort to re-deploy, re-integrate, and re-validate the
entirety of the solution. Creating and maintaining such a complex
environment — managing version dependencies, synchronizing
updates, dealing with license compatibilities, and ensuring
compliance with company policies, and and an enterprise may have
several variations — can drain resources and quickly turn
savings into spending.

Moreover, enterprises generally combine open source products
with commercial and proprietary software. Hence, open source
products don’t just need to coexist with each other; the
software must also integrate seamlessly with the closed-source
solutions an enterprise has already invested in.

So, open source software often comes free, but it doesn’t
always come cheap. (Or as Richard Stallman famously said,
“Free as in free speech, not free as in free beer.”)
The price tag ticks up as resources are wasted on policy
development, education, integration, and oversight. Without a
cost-effective solution, such unforeseen expenses could become a
barrier to wider success in the enterprise.

The Solution

Fortunately, there’s a cost-effective solution emerging in
the form of third-party, open source services companies. This new
breed of open source company doesn’t sponsor any particular
package; instead, it focuses on the broader challenges of open
source, helping enterprises take advantage of its many benefits,
while minimizing the burdens of deployment and management.

The open source service companies can assume many forms: One
form is the stack supplier, and others include the support
provider, systems integrator, consultant, software developer, and a
combination of all of the above. Among the newcomers are Virtuas,
BitRock, SpikeSource, and OpenLogic[ the author’s company],
but the larger, traditional IT players are also beginning to take
notice and build practices in this area.

While the size and substance of the service companies differ,
all share a common philosophy: each eschews the typical model for
the commercialization of open source. Rather than latch onto one,
particular open source product with a big installed base and
monetize it with subscriptions, support contracts, and consulting,
each company provides solutions that extend across many open source
products. Each supplier traffics in expertise about how to use open
source in concert with software downloaded, purchased, or developed

By backing broader solutions, offering support that stretches
across projects and guiding the development of sound policies,
these companies offer concerned enterprises a way to mitigate risk
and reduce the costs associated with open source.

The Legitimization of Open Source

It’s important to understand that from the very beginning,
enterprise customers set out to minimize the high risk open source
seemed to pose. The cost savings and flexibility of open source
were always and surely tempting, but when the open source movement
was just getting started, the community wasn’t equipped to
provide commercial-grade support. Additionally, the cultural gap
between corporate executives and open source developers was severe.
To make enterprises comfortable with open source, a market had to
develop to instill the” suits” with the confidence needed to buy
in. In other words, one of the scruffy faithful needed to shave and
don a suit on behalf of open source.

One of the first companies to turn open source into revenue was
Cygnus Solutions, founded in 1989 by three GNU hackers with a good
business idea and fortuitous timing. Back then, nearly every
computer vendor offered its own, proprietary "i">C compiler, linker, and loader, but the GNU tools were
also very popular. Chip makers, seeking to provide the GNU tools on
each new processor, would pay a big premium to Cygnus to port the
GNU software to each new architecture.

Cygnus was really the first company to demonstrate that you
could make money off of “free” software without adding
any intellectual property. According to the Cygnus model, all you
needed was the right service for a popular set of open source

Sleepycat Software, the makers of Berkeley
was the first company to demonstrate that you could make
money by selling code even as you gave it away for free.
Sleepycat’s novel” dual-license” model has been applied by a
few other players, including Trolltech and MySQL, with great
success. However, such success typically depends on owning a
significant amount of intellectual property, a very rare thing in a
world where contributions are made by engineers all across the

Perhaps the biggest step in the maturation of open source has
been the evolution of commercial Linux distributions. Linux was the
first open source project penetrate into enterprise environments,
but it wasn’t until companies such as Red Hat and Novell
packaged it and backed it with service contracts that Linux really
took off. To achieve success, it was essential that Linux take on
some of the characteristics traditionally seen in commercial
software. Enterprises needed code that was stable and needed a
reliable vendor to turn to for support. By becoming a trusted
source and certifying its code, Red Hat lessened the risk for
enterprise customers.

Even with advancements in enterprise-grade open source in
specific categories like operating systems and databases, open
source continued to be hurt by a lack of more complete solutions.
Even when people accepted the value of niche open source options,
they remained skeptical that a group of packages could work
together seamlessly in the same way a suite from Oracle or IBM

Enter the LAMP stack. In 1998, German journalist Michael Kunze
described how a user could save money on software by bundling
Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP into a high-performance, open source
Web platform. Since LAMP’s inception, it’s become a
major influence in the software industry, and dispelled a lot of
myths about open source. The LAMP stack was exactly what the open
source community needed to really prove its worth.

Where Are We Now?

Over the last few years, commercial open source has come of age,
with more enterprises using it in more ways than ever before. Each
open source success adds credibility, making it easier for IT
managers to choose open source the next time around. Five years
ago, for instance, no one expected to see Linux in mission-critical
deployments. Today, Linux is a standard platform. And the trend
continues, as open source database and application servers become
de rigueur.

Oddly, or perhaps predictably, the titans of the software
industry still talk as if open source is stuck on the fringe.
That’s dead wrong: companies already rely on open source
solutions for all kinds of fundamental needs. The castle walls have
been breached, and the biggest wave of the invasion is still to

This open source onslaught heralds a burgeoning market
opportunity for open source IT services companies. Perhaps the most
common business model among these companies is "i">aggregation. A vendor gathers as much open source
software as possible, ties a nice bow around it, and sells support
contracts. However, most customers don’t want yet another
vendor to provide core infrastructure software; an established
vendor, such as Red Hat or Novell, can easily provide such

The real opportunity for growth is in demystifying the use of
open source. Those third-party, open source firms that focus on
helping enterprises develop policies, pick projects, and manage
deployments are the ones most likely to succeed and excel.

Where Are We Headed?

Indeed, there are companies already out there aiming to fill
this need- giving enterprises the right tools and assurances to
sustain the broad, long-term use of open source. But this market is
just getting started, and we’re going to see big changes in
the next year or two.

These changes start with stack suppliers. Right now a lot of
companies are in the business of packaging and certifying open
source software stacks, trying to emulate the success of stacks
like LAMP and SASH (The open source Java cocktail of Apache Struts,
Apache Axis, Spring Framework, and Hibernate). There will continue
to be a market for this, but I think we’re going to see it
settle into a niche serving the tight budgets of the SMB space and
very specific needs in the production data center.

This business of fixed configuration stacks is going to get
squeezed out from both sides. As customers increasingly expect
infrastructure software to come along with an operating system, OS
vendors like Red Hat, MandrakeSoft, and Novell are going to do the
bundling of some key components themselves, and application vendors
are going to work with one another to provide joint solutions.
Moreover, large enterprises, where the real money is, don’t
just need a seal of approval- they need customization and

The future of this practice is in finding a way to serve up
tested, certified, and stable stacks that are easily tailored to
each customer’s specifications. Much like Dell revolutionized
the customization of PCs and made it the standard, I expect that
the future of open source stacks is in made-to-order flexibility,
not a menu with a handful of options.

Management Tools Mature

Anyone who has dealt with procuring open source on a large scale
knows it isn’t an easy task. Let’s consider a partial
list of options for a business unit looking to save money on
licenses with an open source mail server:







*JBoss Mail Server

*Apache James


These are all “open source” on some level, but
narrowly conflating so many different projects into one “open
source” bucket is dangerous. There’s a lot more to the
procurement decision than that. What are the tradeoffs of each
package on that list? Which ones will work with an existing
platform? Where should they be obtained? Which ones have the right
licenses for a company’s scheme?

In a similar vein, enterprises need ways to keep some control
over how open source is used. CIOs in large companies don’t
want to squash the use of open source, but they do need to ensure
that they’re in compliance with regulations, open source
licenses and corporate policies. They need to gain visibility into
how and where open source is used across all of the different areas
of their organization.

Lastly, they need easy ways to manage the uptake of rapidly
changing open source software. This means automated tools and
processes for configuring and deploying new software. It also means
ways to manage complex upgrades, so that customers can ensure that
the open source software they use stays compatible while still
taking advantage of new features.

This is an area where companies focused on easing the use of
open source have a lot of value to add. Their core competency is
expertise that stretches across a wide range of projects, and they
can put the right packages in the hands of an enterprise’s
developers and give them the tools to maintain them at a much lower
price point than an enterprise could do internally.

Support Consolidates and Separates

For enterprises eyeing open source, the name of the game remains
the mitigation of risk, and that means support contracts. In an
August 2006 report from The 451 Group, about half of all
respondents identified support as the most important service they
want from third-party stack providers; certification and testing
was a distant second with only 16% of the vote. Right now, many
enterprises are either trying to juggle a dozen or more different
support contracts from providers of point solutions, or they
aren’t getting support at all (whether by choice or because
the package they’re using has no company behind it). Neither
of these scenarios is sustainable if open source is to build market
share in the enterprise. In the first case, customers are pouring
resources into interfacing between different sources of support,
and struggling to solve integration issues spread across multiple
packages. In the second case, they’re missing out on the
tremendous potential of open source solutions that don’t come
from a big, monolithic vendor.

There’s no cut-and-dry solution to this dilemma.
Enterprises already have one or more big, incumbent IT services
providers on the payroll, usually the professional services arm of
someone like HP, IBM, or Sun. These practices aren’t going
away, not by a long shot, and their customers will continue to use
them for deeper-level support when a proprietary framework is
involved. It’s also not practical for an open source support
company to specialize in too many projects. You run into a
“long tail” problem where there isn’t enough
demand to justify developing expertise around every individual
project- only the most popular ones call for it.

What customers need is not one shop with its own experts in
hundreds of different open source packages- it’s just not
feasible. But they still want “one throat to choke” to
feel comfortable with using a diverse group of packages. With open
source, expertise is distributed far and wide, so the best way to
offer that assurance is by aggregating different sources into some
form of “federated support.” By developing
relationships with the right developers and serving as an
intermediary to secure their services, third-party open source
companies can offer support for a hundred or even a thousand
projects with a single contract.

Good Habits Come With Good Policies

Simplifying support and offering more flexibility in certified
stacks will help enterprises take advantage of open source cost
savings, but the best way for them to cut the cost of use in the
long run is to establish clear policies early. There’s a big
need for consulting and training services geared towards developing
policies in the enterprise dealing with the concerns unique to open

Procurement, deployment, version control, code contribution:
these are all things that need to be defined in clear terms of
acceptability across an enterprise. What projects are allowed? What
versions? Where do they need to come from? What’s the
procedure to introduce them? Is the legal department involved? Are
developers allowed to interact with the project community on their
own? By retaining experts to help them answer these questions ahead
of time, customers can avoid lapses in maintenance and the
introduction of unreliable software down the road.

When it comes to open source policies, the granddaddy of all
concerns has always been licensing. The SCO v. IBM case in 2003,
with a billion-dollar figure attached, led to a lot of paranoia
about legal exposure from the poorly supervised introduction of
open source software. Most of that initial fear has ebbed, but it
brought the issue of open source licensing front and center as a
business concern and renewed some of the earlier preconceptions of
open source as a high-risk gambit.

The fact that companies like Black Duck Software and Palamida
are appearing to address this issue almost exclusively should tell
you just how sensitive people are to the provenance and
restrictions on open source software these days. But managing open
source licenses and preventing code contamination doesn’t
have to be hard- a well-articulated policy can go a long way in
eliminating problems before they happen. Expertise in license
compatibility and policies is already in high demand, and the need
for it is going to explode as open source components find their way
into more and more code.

The Danger of Open Source Exceptionalism and the
Era of the Mixed-Source Enterprise

As these services mature, enterprises eager to better leverage
open source are going to take advantage, and the result will be a
lot more winners in the enterprise open source market. Smaller,
more specialized open source companies will find a stronger market
for their solutions when enterprises have the right support system
to fit them into a larger framework.

I’m obviously quite optimistic about the prospects for
commercial open source in the enterprise, but let’s dispel
any delusions about the “open source enterprise” of the
future. There are open source advocates out there who are quick to
forecast the eventual doom of proprietary software, but this idea
of open source exceptionalism is myopic. Open source software
carries with it unique benefits and challenges, but in business
terms, it is not so unlike the rest of the software industry-
t’s still just code. It is productized and bundled in similar
ways, and there are enough failed open source businesses to prove
that going open source is not a panacea for mediocre software or a
weak business model- people won’t just throw money at you
because you throw software at them.

The more dangerous consequence of this attitude is when people
fail to recognize that even as it grows like gangbusters, open
source is going to remain but one piece of a puzzle. Any large
enterprise will be using its own cocktail of open source packages,
closed source software from big vendors, and proprietary code
developed in-house.

Many of the challenges for the future aren’t just about
quilting together different open source packages, but about getting
open source to play well with code from the other side.

By and large, I think people are well past the knee-jerk, open
source purist sentiments of ten years ago, but some still get
carried away and talk as if open source is some unstoppable force
that will subsume closed-source software for good. It’s
abundantly clear to me that corporations will continue to depend on
a mix of open source, commercial, and proprietary software for the
foreseeable future. When it comes to certifying and supporting open
source software for enterprise use, customers don’t care
about whether it works in a vacuum- what matters is that it works
when it’s rolled up with the other code they use, whether
it’s bought from Red Hat or Redmond.

Open source software in business has long since come of age, but
so far commercial open source companies have generally been
narrowly focused- they’re oriented towards providing a
license, support, and other services for a specific open source
solution or set of solutions. That’s why the co-evolution of
this second market is key. You can call them by a lot of different
names- IT services companies, stack providers, support
consolidators, policy consultants- but they’re all
project-agnostic shops devoted to easing the wider use of open
source in the enterprise. They cast a wide net in a way that
individual project maintainers can’t, providing services,
support, and expertise on hundreds, if not thousands, of open
source projects across the board. They’re going to be the
flag bearers in the next phase of open source growth, and as their
practices mature, they will empower enterprises to venture farther
down the open source path than ever before.

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