Computing In The Clouds: Setting Expectations

Does Cloud Computing have a play in HPC? Join us for a pragmtic view of "the cloud" and how it may expand the horizons of HPC.

Before we get started, I would be remiss, if I did not remark that terrestrial clouds are made up mainly of ice crystals formed from vapor. One might posit that clouds are formed when the air temperature is sufficiently warm to allow the vapor to rise, where it rapidly cools and crystallizes. Don’t take it from me, check with NASA for the final word “on hot air and clouds.”

Don’t read anything into this though. I am just pointing out some irony here, that terrestrial clouds are formed from vapor and (at least) warm to hot air. Cough, Cough.

A Cloudy Definition

There is this buzzword term running around called “Cloud Computing,” which like many other buzzword terms, have more than one definition. Maybe “buzzword” is a bit strong. In any case, let’s delve into the Cloud, and you decide if this is fad or disruptive future technology.

Getting a definition of Cloud Computing can be an interesting exercise. Ask ten technologists and you will likely get eleven answers. And, that is a problem. Defining something can often help shape a discussion, though in this case, the multiple definitions might confuse the discussion.
In this case, a pragmatic approach may work best. One might then ask, what problem or set of problems does Cloud Computing solve, and how does Cloud Computing solve it?

Before we answer that question a bit of background my be helpful. HPC users find the SSE registers in Intel architecture chips useful as a way to increase the number of computing cycles completed per unit time, effectively reducing the cost per cycle. Multi-core is an extension of this, providing many general purpose processing cores per socket. Clustered systems provided large multiplicative factors of clock cycles per unit time for certain applications. Accelerators seek to increase computing efficiency per cycle or provide local massive cycle parallelism within a single machine. All of these techniques are attempts to throw more processing power, usually locally, at the problem of computing.

For High Performance Computing (HPC) users, these are all familiar techniques. And, they come with some known costs. In the case of SSE, there is the cost you pay to pack and unpack the data. In the case of multicore you have another hierarchy with which software must address. In the case of clusters, you have to add in significant communications latency and lower bandwidth. In the case of accelerators, you have to deal with the per cycle costs as well as the development and support costs. All of these techniques are about reducing the cost per cycle, by dramatically increasing the number of available cycles for applications.

In my experience, the problem Cloud Computing is seeking to solve is to reduce the time, complexity, and cost to stand up and scale up (or down) applications. That is, it is not about multiplying processing cycles in a computing intensive application, but enabling that application to be scaled up or down in terms of utilization and demand. Reduce the marginal cost of adding (or removing) users and applications.

Not everyone will agree with this definition. Call it the 12Th definition of Cloud Computing. What we find is that most of the variations in Cloud Computing come in terms of how the various aspects are delivered. What is interesting is that there is a wide variety of methods to deliver an application to users. Some of the high performance computing methods are useful in these contexts as you can leverage the ability to deliver what the application needs, instead of a fixed number of cycles per unit time. These methods allow significant flexibility in application delivery.

A Computer Is Just a Door-stop Without Applications

Think about it. The pragmatic definition I gave for Cloud Computing begs numerous questions, on the implementation and usage side. Unfortunately, it is a magnet for companies who feel a need to re-brand their offerings as being “in the Cloud” in order to stay current. This is what gives Cloud Computing a fundamentally “fad-like” sense to it. This trend reminds me of what happened in HPC when clusters started gain real market share. At first these systems were dismissed by the major vendors as not meaningful solutions (clusters now dominate HPC). Realizing that they were left behind by the upstarts, some of the major vendors started talking about “Grids”, and that term was largely co-opted by marketeers as the logical progression of clustering into their offerings. Allowed them to say “hey, we were working on it all along.” Unfortunately, co-opting and confusing the term “grid” from its original intentions only managed to confuse purchasers of clusters who were offered “grids”.

My belabored point is that expect some re-branding as a way to hitch existing products to the computing cloud. Before we talk about using clouds, let’s take a short tour of what is currently available. Please bear with me as we go through these offerings, and note that people may disagree with small or large particulars of this discussion. That’s fine, as, if you will pardon the pun, Cloud Computing is somewhat nebulous.

A Tour Of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing has a producer side and a consumer side. The producer side are the platforms and systems upon which you set up your software tools. The consumer side is, of course, your user base. When combined with virtualization using standard tools such as VMware, you can largely make the producer side appear pretty close to exactly the way you want, within specific limits (of the virtualization software). For example, while I am sure there would be some users out there who might like this, tying together bunches of virtualized containers will not let you create a monster 128 socket 512 core SMP with 1 TB of memory. Or, at least today you can’t do this. In 2008, we can’t create a virtual Cray supercomputer in the Cloud.

What we can do is create our platform on someone else’s platform. This is the Platform as a Service (PaaS) model. You don’t pay for acquiring the hardware, just “renting” it. You pay only for what you use. So if you want 20 small 1 GB ram, single core machines with a small local disk to act as web-front-ends for your system, by all means, create this environment. And, this is where it gets interesting on the producer side, and curiously where things like Linux and FOSS come in.

You can create this using a variety of tools on a variety of platforms. As your needs scale up you can instantiate an additional box (virtually or physically). Remember, the cost of standing up that N+1th box is one of the things that Cloud Computing is seeking to reduce. Imagine that you need M (some large number) of additional boxes. Imagine you have a license cost to pay per instance, lets call that L(i). And you have a license cost to pay per average number of connections to this box, lets call this L(c). Your cost to add 1 additional box is B. So your cost model of adding additional capacity looks like:

 M*(B + L(i) + L(c))

For a FOSS OS, L(i) is zero. Same with L(c), at least for the OS, and the FOSS tools.

Comments on "Computing In The Clouds: Setting Expectations"


this is an excellent article. You are quite right to concentrate on the ISV codes. I can see that there is a definite market there for small shops, ie. engineering consultancies, which employ a few highly skilled engineers, yet can’t justify the budget for a full-time HPC wallah.
There’s a definite niche there for those small shops who (say) take on consultancy projects, and don’t want to pay for (say) a CFD code license on a 365 day a year basis. When they get a project, say the design of a building or a new automobile piston, they parcel it up and send it off to the cloud computing provider to run a commercial code on it.


I like reading an article that will make men and women think.
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??e prices ra?ge from 18,900 eu?os ($24,000) to 150,000 euros ($192,000).

??wever, for an?ther $50-75 d?llars, there ar? other mod?ls with tthe same feature?,bett?r s?und quality, and n?w parts.
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Th? cell phone interface has ? large multi-touch display, essentiallly ?llow?ng y?u to dial a number ??th the point oof a fi?ger.

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When comp??e? to national cell pphone ?arriers, th?s rate ma? not be a cost savi?gs as most cell p?one companies woll provide frree te?t messaging, inclusive
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Kidds are more s?sceptible becaus? their brains and immune systems are still d?velopi?g.
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So I decide? to switch to Tracp?o?e. D? this on both sides.
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When you smile it changes thee tone off your voice, ?hich t?e ot?er
person will pick up onn sub-consciously. Panason?c
will su?ely sup?ly the best solut?on for one’? needs.

It is an amazing new phone, a?d represe?ts great st?ides in te?hnolog?.
If yo? know that one person is easiest to reach as oppose? to
another, possibly someone w?o might also travel ?ith
his ?r her job, indicated whh? to ?onta?t first.

Consider that in Europe, cell phon? loss is ?erious business.

An ?o?ied interface most often seen on these pho?es ?s the iPhone’s famous icon ?nterface.
Sh?rt-term ?xposure can produce ?eadaches, dizziness, lack oof concentration, fatig?e, heart
palp?tations, comp?omise ?mmune fun?tion, affect
sleep, dec?eas? the effectiv?ness of thera?eutic drug treatme?t, cause skin rashe? and ?ecre?se me?tl aand
physical well-being.

The duration of the co?tr?ct is indepenentl? selected by the use? fr?m t?e specified interval of time
which is 12 to 24 mmonth? off duration. If I wwalk i?to
my hallway, bathroom, ?itchen, or ?ven on my front porch, there
w?ll ?e static on the line, and if I proc?ed any further, ?uch as into my
bedroom o? o?to my sidewalk, I w?ll actually lose signal with
th? bas? unit, and hus lose the call. On the other ha??, insuranc?
companies generall? increase ?remiums and mioght not even p?y when ?ell phone use iis inv?lved in any accident, soo be careful.

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?yl?n offers the best stre??th and du?ability but ?? al?o t?e most expen?iv?.

Ther? is n? residue left behind in your car?ets andd nothing p?llutin?
too the envi?onment, so homeowners caan relax knowing their clean
carpets are not ?t the expen?e of the planet. When they remove less of those contaminant? you nott ?noy leave the flo?r initi?lly dirtie?, ?ut it leaves behi?d a resid?e ?hi?h attract? mor? dirt to the ?reas so ?t
rec?ils muc? quicke? ??? lzst ?ut not least the dry times ?re greatly increased with less
suction. They a?e loc?ted all over the country. ?es,
this may m?an paying out-of-pock?t for a service, but consider how mmuch your landlord ?ill charge ?ou
if yoou don’t. By Steven Hall : A how to tutorial about Au?tin Carpet Cl?aning, Austin Ca?pet ?l?aners, H?mme Improvem?nt with st?p by
step guide from Steven Hall.

If not properpy taken care of, t?ey could g?t stained.

I have cats that o?casionally feel the ?eed to yak up
a hai?ball all over my ?arp?ting. Carpet cleaners that are
hi?hly rate? aree not al?ays the most expen?ive with the most num?er
off acces?or?es, but those th?t h?ve f?ntion?l
accessories t? ensure effective ?leaning oof the ca?pet.
Take side t??l?s for example. A carpet spe?ialist w?ll adviseyou to always
?heck o? important fe?tures like moistrure barrier, ab?ckingsystem that provi?es
effective moisture bardrier guards a?ainst?acte?ial ?rowth and odors.
A clea? carpet not only is super?or t? your ?yes,
but it als? handl?s the germs ??? bacteria
?reesing a?d ma?es your place a much healthi?r an? germ free.

Painti?g one room in 2 d?fferent fi?ishes will make it look a bit higher.
Also grout, t?le, u?holstery, leather, couch, pet odor.
?he end r?sult? will be often rewardin?, if you settle for one.
I tr?ed ?ll oof my usual cleani?g tr?c?s, but the odor l?ngered.
T?iss makes it easy to lay them without havi?g to deal with extra toxins iin the air th?t iis em?tted from glues.

2) If ?o? a?e lucky enough to ha?e a free r?om th?t wo?’t need t?e p??fessional c?rpet cleaning
?ervices, mo?? some p?ece? of furniture into that room.

?t is ? great testimony of howw dur?ble it is and how elegant the
pi?ce i? even aft?r so many years. Remove ?rawers and shelvin? rom cabinets to maake the
furn?ture pieces ?asi?r too move. The old stain mhst be
sprayed, an? the ?rod?ct mu?t remain ?n the stain for ab?ut sixty seconds in
order to loos?n it. Ther?fore, it is essenti?l tto install carpet pads befor? laying down th? car?et.
Almost all of the ?arly carpets were made of e?t?er ?otr?n or wool.
So if ?ou aree ploanning to replace ?ou? carpet, vs?t carpetreco? or download this list of ?a??et reclamation ?enters.

Th? more attention t?d?tail you h??e, the better a?d more long-la?ting the
f?nis?ed product wiull be! Moreover, these are shw?
which are nott gender sp?cific ?nd ?njo? a ??der audience
than others. A knotted pile rug is a ?rie? oof w?ft thread?
whi?h a?e alternate? wth a supplementary weft thread that risess up
fr?m the car?et surfa?e and forms a we?ve. Thiss ?rogr?m tod?y not o?ly features stand-up artists,
but va?ious other p?pular television actors hav? also been ?
part of ?t sho?casing th??r ?omic timings.
Home de?ot offers an e?cellent c?stomer se?vice.
Fi?d this out first because it ?s a lot easier to have a profe?s??nal install your carpet.
Sometimes, these carpets ?re aloso refe?red as shag carpets or Calif?rnia s?ag carpets beca?se
these rugs have in?ividual fibers, ??ich are twisted a?d curled toget?er neatl? inn tthe fabric.

At t?e end of the cleaning cycle, th? SpotBot will beep at
you, and continue to beep at you until yo? hit stop. You may en? up causing d?mage that wipl shorten ?t? lifespan
a greatt deal. These rugs can trap sso much dirt, making them a hazard,
whi?h is why you should get professional cleaners.
After remo?ing the grip bars, stasrt in a corner or d??rway and use a pry bar to begin prying up the carpet.
Often, the embedded di?t gives the carpet a permane?tly faded or yello?ed app??rance.
For polye?ter c?rpet fiber? or carlets made from a Teflon material, cleaning with team iis the more common approach.

Home owners can do t?is t?emselves every ??ce in a w?ile
but t?is is nott deemed sufficient es?ecially if your carpet has
been used f?r a very long t?m?. Since thhe material from which car??ts are usually maade is absorbent,
the mo?sture sg?ys in there for a long time. Ink stains require alcohol for ?emoval, for example, whil? typical f?ot
traffic will come clean with any of t?e gen?ral ?ar?et cleaner recipes
below. ?his w?ll make your car?et feel ?oft aand n?w after wwe finish.

Fl?a? are parasites whjich means th?y can’t l?v? with?ut a? animal h?st.
?here are les? expensi?e ways to bea?tify ?our home.

To cr?ate a rustk? cou?tryside bed???m, keep the ??d, bench,nightstand an? d?esser in li?ht color?d
?ood, w?th wooden laminate flooring made of pine or cedar.

B?t while this is undeniably the eaiest and most
?onvenient way to ad??ess the predicament, t?is remedy als? c?mes with a
steep price. Your home iss a v?ry, very im?ortant asset frfom
bot? ?n inve?tment and family view-point.
These ?i?c?s which are r?moved are ?erfect for laying ca?pet
in t?e ?losets orr a bathroom. Also, the total tim? req?ired foor installatio? is approximatel? 3 hours, that is, i?f yoou do it at a stret?h.

The? hafe recently olened ? Rug? T? R?chhes store at 13380 M?n?hester Ro?d in Des Peres that
features a great selection of hand-woven ?nd machine-t?fted area rugs in contemporary, classic,
and t?aditi?nal designs. C?rp?ting is the most benefi?ial selection you can make when y?u would like to cover t?e
floor in your bed?oom, family room, a?d other livi?g areas wh?r?ver you wa?t wa?mth u?de? your feet.
Cleaning equi?ment Technology a??ancements ha?e brou?ht hi?h-tech cleanin? equipme?t
into t?e m?rket and the company ??? contract sh?uld not
b? using ??tdat?d equi?ment. The mmat or carpet althoug? enh?nces the splendor of the room with
it? bright prints and fone emb?oidery, there are high chances of it bec?ming very dijrty ?oon a? it does noot have any shiekd to prote?t ?t against the durt
of t?e f??t and shoes. Knowing the problem woll make
it e?sier to choose the most efficient remedy.
White wine and salt.

?owever, if you do not have th? expertise to do it, ?ou m?y run the ri?k of using the wrong
type of clea?ing product or missing a critical step in? the process.
?hen is a last time you had it w?shed? One
is the waterfall method, wh?ch i? qu?te commonly used.
A U-s?aped grouping takes a more form?l app?oa??, w?tyh chairs placed symmetrically across froim each other
aand more space between the seati?g, f?or easy traffic flow.
So, if ?ou are ?emodeling your home, or simply ?hanging thee carpet, you must be l??oking for techniques
to lay a carpet on stairs. Even a plain wate? rinse is helpf?l.

Youu wqnt ?our carp?t to rema?? beautiful ?n? i? good shape just aas the first time you
bo?g?t the carpet. Olefin is very strong and we?r
?esistant. Of course wo?l offes ? gr?at fe?l and performance,
but is v?ry expe?sive. Th?refore, by bi?ding the edges, you are ahle to
save those f?om getting ?ugged and damag?d e?sily.
A lot of possibly stinky things trek acr?ss thhe carpet daily, and those ?mells,
along wiit? cook?ng odors, st?le colognes and cleaners,
and dust caan make our carpets pumgent after awhile. There a?e se??ral ways t? make su?? that the home
is frere from any microorga??sms that are cons?dered dangero?s to the h?alth.

Here is m? web site Carpet Installation Cost Minneapolis




For ?ll thos? chatting freaks it haas the Sam?ung Chat 322 as th? perfect ?olution.
There is a m?nthlyfee forr t?is, which the parents shbould pay annd register their child.
One caan bbuy th?m easily through online comparison portals at ?ffordable rates.

Some of these can bee accessed b? anyone and used f??e of cost.
The following is a list oof precautions which may come ?seful to
you: Computer: P?sition the com?uter iin a place such as kitch?n annd while
d?ing your ?wn work, keep an ey? on your nosy k?id or teen?ger ?hile he
or she is logged in on a chat room. There ?re gift? ?nd incent?v?s
abound for the potent??l customers.

???e on? can take the ?dvanta?e ?f using webcam chat.
Social Networking websites, a? we all know, have chan?e? the way the worl? share? inf?rmation.
With advanced technolog??s ??d techniqu?s, internet has mad
the world a small village. Adult chat rooms r?ally
are ?ecoming well-li?ed among ?entlemen and females ?f many different ages and from all over thee planet.
Somet?mes this act?ally does ?eem to keep them a bbit ?uieter,
allowing other? to get a line or two in her? annd there.
Howe?er, vis?tors must know all rul?s and regulations b?fore
giving ?t a try.

Of course it d?es to them. Sams?ng is one of the lead?n?
mobile manufactu?ing company in the mobile
industry and this has become possible b?cause of the wide rang? of mobile phones that they hav? pr?vid?d to their ?sers.
I am an imp?tient person and I don’t lik? to make ?ppoi?tments with
ps?chics. Samsun? produces som? of the fines mobioe sets for thhe int?rn?t?onal market.
Live chat operato?s can tell where ?our online v?sitors came from, including ?ity,
stat? and postal codes. address the? can do
many cruel thin?s to you aand ??ur computer.

You caan find hundreds of callers and chat with any of th?m by just
logging into the website after signi?g up.
?am?ung mob?ule ph?nes arre not b?hind thee race and is ?lso comi?g up
with numberr ?f handsets this year with the most innovative features eq?ipped ?n it.
Tho?? ?h?t rooms pprovide a benef?ci?l mesthod ffor singles
t? fi?d each other or for a group of ?ersohs to simply enjoy a?
enjoy?ble chat on-line. D? Unive??e O?li?e v?ice chat problem is very
a?noying, it is said that ?ou have to turn on your ?eadset b?fore t?e ?ame start?,
well, that’s means not?ing! In do?ng this, they c?? wrreak ha?o? ?ith
two people at o??e. Ohers haven’t and disa?pear?? forever.

O?e can also have the opt?o? of m?vig to a pr?vate ro?m ?f hee
wants to talk inn priv?cy with s?me one w?thout all?wing others
to intrude. Once they a?e set, they will seek their target and begin harassing him/her.
It doesn’t appear that ?t will take too l?ng.
So I decikded that I’d put up a l?wt of at least the more common of these
?bb?e?iations and codes annd symbols a?d other arcane shortcuts that have totally ?uined the Engl??h lan?uage.
Whate??r the case, each of those customers deserves your undivided attention.
If you choose a web sit wh?ch maintains sta?dard? for u?ers,
you wo?ld ?e able too afoid those i?conveniences b?cause if ? visitor doe?n’t
f?llow the r?les, he or she will be ki?ked out of th? chat ro?m for
causi?? the situat?on.

Yes, most aall chats h?ve rules. Th?us one s?ould ta?e the ecam ser?ousl? aas it is a tick?t w?ich
?ill create a path to migrate to diff?rent countries where
there is ample growth oppo?tunity. A good
?nd reljable Internet service provider will play a p?votal ??le
inn ensuring that you meet the right chats.

All of this is free netw?rking ?nd I can always turn ?it
into f?le-sharing, business contacts or social contacts.
Ado?e Breeze ?rovidesa collaborat?on feature a?
well in which students a?e able to share document? an? ?ork oon them
to?ether. While ?umerous beli?ve tthat t?at it ?pp?ars to be
simpler on lone understanding t?he oth?r party is just ?ot physically with
y??, chat ith str?n?ers mi?ht nonet?eless c?use reluctance on bboth aspect on
t?? conversing chatters. Now this being real time, it iis blazingly fast.

Whenever enterig ?dult chat rooms y?u have the overall
fre?dom to perform your sexual dream? w?thout worrying about indiv?duals plac?ng judgement regarding thi?.
As such, goo? chat room? can help you iff you are lo?ki?g for something, or need some information, o? if you are j?st look?ng to make friends onl?ne.
However, it is far b?tt?r for your kid to begin ?sing video
chat rooms. Loquacious alway? search for a gadget that can caster f?r long period ?ff time,
?omes at c??ap price a? well as lets chat in a
comfortable manner. Skymol’s c?mpetitor? includ? Boldchat, Liveperson, ?elaro and

Therefore, forum? ar? in ple?t? and you just have to thin? of an? topic.
Samsung is one of the lead?r? of the electonics mark?t.
?his will prev??t t?at us?r f?om ?ntering t?e chat a?ain.
They w?ll make a he?day out of co?st??tly boot?ng yoou and trying
any means necessary to ma?e your Yahoo Chat experience ? neg?tive one.
A?ot?er thing I ?otic?d a?out these ?h?ts is that,
the servi?e site is pretty eas? to follow.
A Lot of times, I run into firewall problems and I ref?se to turn off my
f?rewall f?r a something s? simple.

Soon Samsun? ?alaxy Arrmani dealls ?re alsao going to hit the market with ?m?zin? offers at affordable rates.
No matter h?w far t?o ?eople are p?ysically,
usin? t?e chat se?vic?s th?y can comm?nicate ?n
real time. This option iis f?und near the fa?
right oof the menu. These ids are usually anynomous in nature.
The pr?blem many ?ave with Sk?pe is that, alth?ugh it is ffree to ?ownload (and free to ?se with ?ther Skype user?), it i?s not
“free” in that the code is not op?n-so?rce.
A whol? lot of accessor?es are al?o ma??factu?ed by
Samsu?g fo? t?e internation?l market.

How?ver, it is alway? advised t? guide your ch?ld in the ?ight tr?ck while he
is a?ces??ng o?line ?h?t rooms. New technol?gies are emerging day-by-day,
which helps to impro?e the p?rf?rmance of the ?usin?ss.

By using live chat softwa?e, yo?r business ccan attain positive and negative c?mm?nts from your
markrt annd by th?s; it makes it easier for you to un?erstand tthe
demand? ?f t?e market all th? while thus enabling y?u to
recognize the needss of yo?r clients. The speak?r will tell you whe? it’s yo?r turn to speak.
Live chat t?ols will usually automatically collect informatio? a?d compile reports ab??t
the av?rage cust?mer?uch as where th?y are from and their br?wsing history.
Chattinng in safe mode: Chatting on installed c?at prog?am iis more efficient and safe.

You get perfect voice quality, and you can make internatio?al
calls at local rates! And so, have you be?n serious about chat on l??e ?
It wa? ve?y i?tere?ting and reminded me ?f t?e deviate Hal in 2001 ? Space Od?s?ey,
where t?e ro?ot took over whether anyoe li?rd it or not.

You ty?in? out “you, are, what” are ju?t ?s easy and m?re int?llig?nt soundinng than the less t??n pleasant alternative already mentioned.
All of th?se are comi?? up from various renowned mobile phone brands pos?essing the latest and a?v?nced fe?tures ?n it.
While loo?ing for a g?od Asian ?hat room, consider all t?ee information the? put in the?r

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