Linux for Small Systems

Short on horsepower? Less is more when it's powered by Linux.

Linux is an amazingly scalable OS — that is, it can be used on anything from tiny embedded devices to large supercomputer clusters. This scalability is important for Linux as a whole, but it might not seem critical to the average office or home user who runs Linux on a PC, at least not at first. Upon closer examination, though, Linux’s scalability can be a useful boon to PC users. Do you have old computers gathering dust in a corner? Is your desktop system still functional but a bit sluggish because it’s a couple of years old? Did you buy a low-end bargain PC and now regret it because it’s too slow? If you’ve answered “yes” to any of these questions, Linux’s scalability may be the answer to your problems (well, some of them, anyway).

The key to using Linux on underpowered computers is to learn how to divest a standard Linux installation of the unnecessary cruft that tends to attach itself to mainstream distributions. There are a couple of ways of doing this: You can start with a less feature-laden distribution or strip down a larger one. In some cases, you might consider using Linux as a dedicated thin client. However you do it, you can have a fully functional Linux desktop or server on a very modest computer indeed, simply by choosing your software carefully.

Of course, there are limits to this — you won’t be able to get high-definition video playback or host a massively popular Web site on an old 486. You should, though, be able to use a somewhat elderly computer for some of the most common desktop functions such as browsing, word processing and e-mail. And you may even want to run low-bandwidth network servers.

Choosing a Lightweight Distribution

One of the best ways to get the most out of a less-than-powerful computer is to use a lightweight distribution. Although Red Hat, Fedora, Ubuntu, Mandriva, SuSE, and many other distributions are powerful and easy to install, these distributions also tend to install lots of software that you don’t really need, but may impose hefty requirements on a small computer.

Two relatively mainstream distributions spring to mind as candidates for small-system use: Debian and Slackware. Both distributions make it easy to install a bare-bones Linux system, without all the flashy extras that more popular distributions install.

Debian has a couple of advantages over Slackware:

Debian Advantages

  1. Debian uses the Debian package system, which is popular and enables network-based software updates. Slackware, by contrast, uses modified tarballs, which aren’t used by any other major distribution.
  2. Debian is available on ten architectures, including some that may be of interest to small-system users, such as PowerPC. Slackware is available only on x86 CPUs, although at least one spin-off project (Slamd64) exists to provide Slackware on the AMD64 architecture.

Both Debian and Slackware are well-established Linux distributions with long histories. Debian is the basis of Ubuntu, and Slackware is among the oldest surviving Linux distributions. Both are being actively maintained.

One drawback to both of these distributions is that they provide relatively little in the way of hand-holding GUI installation and system administration tools. Thus, you must be prepared to use text-mode tools, at least initially. If you really must have GUI system administration tools, you can install them after setting up the system. One useful option in this respect is Webmin, which provides Web-based administrative tools for a wide variety of Linux distributions, including Debian and Slackware. You can even remotely administer your Linux system using Webmin, although doing so increases your security risks.

I installed Debian 4.0-r3 on a system with a 1.2GHz AMD Duron CPU. Installing the “Standard system” and “desktop environment” package sets consumed 2.3 GB of disk space. If 2.3 GB is more space than you’ve got, try installing just the “Standard system” and then add software to that. Another of my systems is a ten-year-old notebook computer with a 470MHz AMD K6 CPU. It has a Slackware 12.0 installation (the current version is 12.1), which consumes 2.7 GB of disk space; however, I’ve added a number of packages to the Slackware system, so it could install on a smaller hard disk, in a pinch. Even these systems could be further slimmed by judicious use of a package manager, as described shortly.

Of course, your choices for running Linux on limited hardware aren’t restricted to Debian and Slackware. A Web search will turn up plenty of others, such as Arch Linux, CRUX, Damn Small Linux, and Vector Linux. You might want to visit the Web sites for these distributions and perhaps even use one of them. However, sticking with Debian or Slackware gives you the advantage of keeping you fairly close to the mainstream, and thus improving your chances of finding help should you need it.

Stripping Down a Heavyweight Distribution

A second option for running a slim Linux system is to install one of the big distributions, such as Fedora or Ubuntu, but trim the system after you’ve installed it. Unfortunately, this task can be a tricky one, particularly if you’re relatively new to Linux. If your disk space is limited, you may also be faced with the challenge of installing your chosen distribution to begin with — in some cases, you may not be able to fit even the base installation on your hard disk!

Assuming you can install a base system, though, how can you then strip it down? The best tools for the job are GUI package management programs. If you’re using Debian or a Debian-based distribution, Synaptic is the standard utility for the job. In Fedora, Yumex is a good choice.

For Ubuntu or other Debian-based distributions, try typing synaptic at a command prompt in X (you may need to be root, or use sudo, as in sudo synaptic). If you get a command not found error, type apt-get install synaptic or sudo apt-get install synaptic to install the package. You may also be able to launch it from a desktop environment’s menu system.

You can use Synaptic to peruse the installed packages using the upper-right pane of the window. Installed packages have highlighted boxes in the column marked S. If you spot a package you don’t need, right-click it and select Mark for Removal or Mark for Complete Removal from the pop-up menu. Once you’ve marked as many packages as you like, click the Apply button to remove the packages you’ve selected.

Yumex on Fedora fills a similar role to Synaptic, but operational details differ. To launch Yumex, type yumex at a command prompt or locate it in a desktop environment’s menus. If Yumex isn’t installed on your system, try typing yum install yumex to install it. Once Yumex is running, select the Installed radio button above the package list. You can unselect the packages you want to remove using the top right pane. Once you’ve done this, click the Add & Process button. Yumex will ask for confirmation, then remove the packages.

One problem with stripping down a big distribution is that you may not know what packages are safe to remove. The descriptions shown by Synaptic and Yumex can help you make this determination, but sometimes these descriptions will leave you scratching your head. Package managers will often warn you of serious problems, either by refusing to let you remove a truly vital package or by informing you that a large number of other packages depend on one you’ve selected for removal. You can then cancel the uninstallation. I recommend proceeding with caution when removing packages lest you create problems. Unless your disk space is very tight, leaving unnecessary packages installed won’t cause really serious problems.

Comments on "Linux for Small Systems"

buggsy2

Great article. I acquired a couple of old lappies for free recently and put xubuntu on one of them. Works fine. I figure I get about as good performance and functionality as the new low-power notebooks just by recycling the old stuff.

Reply
dcolley2

I bought a couple of Toshiba Tecra 8000′s and installed DSL on one and xubuntu on the other. Not seeing any functional difference. I prefer xubuntu only because I run ubuntu on my desktop machine. Good article.

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jerryb

It seems to me that this in depth advice is perfect and highly usable for those who wish to equip their offspring with computers that are somewhat restricted in their ability to reach offending sites on the Internet. In fact, the suggestions made can be used to extend life of almost any computer, of any age, for use as a dedicated word processor.

Reply
rwt711

I’m going to take this article and use it as propaganda in my war against paid-for software. I’ll show this to every customer that I have who is thinking about buying a new windows os.

Thanks for the article. keep it up.

Rob Thomas – Owner
OutsideTheBox Technology Solutions.

Reply
x95tobos

Wonder if you really did your homework.. First, small systems are rather embedded devices, PDAs, phones, so on.. OK, so it’s rather about old systems, fine. But KMail comes with KDE libraries dependencies, and most distros pack it together with other “goodies” they shove on your throat! (well, since it’s Linux, there always will be alternatives though, like the kdemod on Arch!). Also, I see no mention about Opera- which is not GPL, but still a freebie, and can go toe to toe with Firefox and IE for features. Since we are at it, Openbox is in my opinion as light as IceWM/Blackbox, but comes with easier/friendlier tools to make/edit menus. And KOffice is only relatively lighter than OO, yet still weighs in considerably. Just for word processing you could use Abiword or the older Maxwell (needs compatible libs installed, though)

Overall, I will give credit for the good intention and honest effort, but notice some completely out of subject blurbs; I’ll quote just one now:

“Increasing disk space is usually fairly easy and inexpensive. ..blaj blah blah … Transferring data from one disk to another is possible, but it is beyond the scope of this column to describe the process.”

Not exactly the scope of the article either.

Hope you don’t mind the criticism, it was not my intension to start flame wars … but I appreciate good things …

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nbigaouette

A really light desktop but that is not as “different looking and handling” than *box, I highly suggest LXDE from http://lxde.org/
Really lightweight, but you still get the Windows looking menu/taskback/tray/desktop, configurable to the extreme but nice as a default.

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graemeharrison

Good article… but readers might think you HAVE to do lots of cutting corners.
I recently took a 10yo Toshiba Tecra 12″ laptop and tried to use the existing Windows98 on it, but the free AVG anti-virus said it no longer supported Win98… with a 500MHz processor and 384MB of RAM, it was never going to be good performer under WinXP, so I put the full/normal desktop install of Ubuntu on it and it ran really well. The 10GB hard disk was more than adequate (about 60% free) etc. It is a little slower to load than my 8-years later laptop, but once up you just don’t notice any lesser performance for OpenOffice, Firefox (ie word processing, spreadsheet and browsing), so I leave it at a weekender, and only take a USB memory stick to/from the location…. Just like a Netbook only free!!!

Reply
graemeharrison

And I should have pointed out that the 10yo laptop did not play full-resolution DivX (MPEG4) compressed movies under Win98 without lots of pauses and stuttering… to the point where full-res (not high-res but even 720×480 video) were not watchable. And of course such on-the-fly decompression and concurrent rapid full-screen display of movies needs a good processor, so full-res movies are still not viewable under Ubuntu on that same 10yo processor.

Good to talk about upgrading USB1 to USB2 etc, but in practice, unless you have a lot of IT junk around, it never really pays to buy new hardware upgrades for very old PCs.

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bobberm

Good article, I have installed “Puppy” linux on a few systems. It is remarkable for such a small OS. If you need some diagnostic tools, try out Backtrack3, I have run it successfully on some really primitive laptops, one of which only has a 5gig hd and about 128meg of RAM! ;-) bobby b

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tfunk

Good article, basically. But it’s better to look for down stripped derivates like Antix, DSL, Puppy, TinyME etc before take a normal distris and reduce it.

Antix for example is a good and light wight debian based system. It runs quick and consumes not much RAM (with IceWM about 28MB on my Dell Latitude with 192MB and Celeron 500).

Also TinyME has a light environment and the Openbox WM is good configured.

Some comments to the article:
Lightweight Applications – the listed apps are not useable on old systems only if you have time to wait that each click needs 3 or 5 sec before something happens.

Hardware upgrades:
Best upgrade on old system is to increase RAM as much as possible cause swapping is the factor which makes working on old system absolutely unusable.

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tonl

I’ve installed Puppy Linux frugally on an old laptop. (256Mb mem, 10 Gb disk) So after a boot all runs from memory in greased lighting mode. Don’t be fooled by the weird name Puppy. All common applications under 100Mb. I’m impressed.

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mkobar

No need to strip down your “heavy” standard distro when there are plenty of JeOS and tiny distributions that fit the bill. Our biased favorite (more for appliances then portable users) is our SourceForge Orange JeOS project (http://www.orangejeos.org) – which has both a JeOS command line release and a Gnome/X11 GUI release.

And I second the votes for Puppy and DSL! Both work great on a old USB flash key.

Reply
pastaputer

computoman.wordpress.com has all kind of goodies about using older equipment.
I use debian on p1 laptop with 96 megs of ram. I love it.

Reply
profolio

Puppy is also my distro of choice. I’ve been running it on an old IBM NetVista and it was one of the few ones that was able to detect my Ralink USB wifi adapter and have my network up in no time. Also, running in root all the time is a definite plus.

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jason16384

Experienced Linux users can use gentoo’s feature customization features and build all their Linux packages from source to be very lightweight.

Reply
perfmonk

Hi,

I agree. I wouldn’t use KDE nor Gnome on an old machine with limited memory.

There are many tiny distros that addresses this problem :

Damn Small Linux http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/
Feather Linux http://featherlinux.berlios.de/
Slitaz http://www.slitaz.org/

I wouldn’t consider anything with a heavy bloated desktop.

Regards,

BT

Reply
grsgiri

Puppy is my Pretty Good OS for my old desktop. It is really old – The config is P-1 1.3 Mhz, 128 MB RAM and 4 GB HDD. It works at great speed, better than the latest things on latest computers. I think one with old hardware should give a try and have a feel of it. I have even installed a older Openoffice suite on it to work with. Most of my friends could not believe that a OS with many built-in packages under 100MB can do many things for us.

Reply
jonhayes

What about LFS (Linux from Scratch)?

Reply
rohanfrancis

linux for old systems?

Reply
cldavisjr

What about LFS…or OE (OpenEmbedded)!? Ever try to build a system up from scratch? Ever google for same beyond LFS? A coherent community with good documentation would be of vast use for “old computers” and the lighter weight systems (recent Asus or Via C7 & Intel Atom based systems ) with little mfg support, but great potential. We (me included) as a community aren’t fulfilling that need.

Reply
avics

I’m using Gentoo on my libretto 110CT with 64Mb ram with a 2.6.28.7 kernel, tuned for the libretto.
Was a bit of a hassle to install but with a Gentoo live and a usb-ide connected and a different (much faster) computer it runs great with X and icewm.
And yes it even plays dvd’s using Margi dvd-to-go and zoomed video via PCMCIA. see http://www.xs4all.nl/~avics

Reply
lescoke

I second the mention of Gentoo.

Reply
saponsky

Instead of stripping down systems, what I did to my desktop was to first install ubuntu server. That will leave you with the base system. Then I add the apps and packages I want via synaptic.
For my PIII 128MB Desktop I have Fluxbox, XFce file manager, and firefox (i know there are lighter browsers). It runs pretty normal, not the fastest thing on earth but neither as slow as when it had MS W98!

Reply
fermi0n

I realise that this comment is slightly off-topic, but I think it relates to the whole “stripped down Linux” topic, plus the author has written an article on “linux power tools”.

I have been looking for information on setting up a home server which is low-power (I am hoping for

Reply
sysadmn

If you’re looking for a low power linux server, look into the Western Digital MyBook World Edition or the NSLU2. If you didn’t want something quite so low powered, look into a desktop using Intel’s Atom or Via’s C7. Here is a good example.

Some of these guys take server appliance to the extreme.

Reply
jjjjjjj

puppylinux nuff said

Reply

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