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Linux Runs on Text: Understanding & Handling Text

Text plays a central role in the Linux operating system. Take better control of your system with a firm understanding of what text is and how best to handle, format and convert it.

This month, as another part of the series about using text on Linux systems, we’ll introduce “plain text” and how you can restructure it. We’ll see how to identify text from different systems (Unix, DOS, Mac) and to convert text between systems. The article ends with some examples, and there’ll be lots more next month.

If you’re used to clicking on files to view and edit them, you’ll probably find some new tools and concepts here. Gurus, please have a look at the main example and be sure it’s familiar.

The fundamental concept is the role of the newline (line feed) character. Reformatting text is basically a matter of juggling newlines. Let’s dig in.

What’s Text?

As I wrote in last month’s column, Linux runs on text. Text comes in a lot of flavors. What we’ll cover this month is plain text: a stream of characters that you can output directly to a terminal window using a utility like cat(1). The text doesn’t have special formatting codes like “start boldface” or “24 pixels high” that are only understood by certain operating systems or applications. Plain text doesn’t require a word processing program like OpenOffice.org Writer to interpret instructions buried before and between the actual text.

Let’s make a test text file. We’ll use it to demonstrate a lot of things about text. Although the example is a bit tedious, the techniques will be useful, later, when you need to know what’s in a text file. We’ll make this text file on a Windows system, and make a similar file later under Linux.

On Microsoft Windows systems, each line of a plain text file ends with a carriage return (CR) character followed by a newline (LF, line feed) character. Let’s use a “Command prompt” window to copy text typed from the keyboard (con:) into a Windows-format file named win.txt. On DOS-type systems, pressing CTRL-Z followed by the ENTER key ends input. The boldfaced text is user input; the rest is system output:

D:\tmp>copy con: win.txt
        line 1
line 2^Z
        1 file(s) copied.

D:\tmp>

Next, let’s read that file from a Linux-type terminal window — for instance, under Cygwin or from a Windows filesystem cross-mounted onto a Linux host. We’ll look at the file with cat, cat -tve, and od -c; and count the number of lines, words, and characters using wc(1). (For an introduction, see the section “od and friends” of Wizard Boot Camp, Part 10.)

/d/tmp$ cat win.txt
        line 1
line 2/d/tmp$
/d/tmp$ cat -tve win.txt
^Iline 1 ^M$
line 2/d/tmp$
/d/tmp$ od -c -w6 win.txt
0000000  \t   l   i   n   e
0000006   1      \r  \n   l   i
0000014   n   e       2
0000020
/d/tmp$ wc win.txt
 1  4 16 win.txt
/d/tmp$

Here are details. (You might open another copy of this page in a separate window so you can see the example while reading the details.)

  1. The first command, cat win.txt, shows a file that looks like the text we entered in the DOS window. However, the bash shell prompt, /d/tmp$, comes just after the text line 2 from the file — instead of on a new line by itself.

    Why? It’s because (as we’ll see below) the contents of win.txt don’t end with a newline character. The shell always prints a prompt immediately after the output of a command (in this case, the cat utility) finishes. There’s no newline at the end of the file, so the shell prompt appears on the same line.

  2. The second command shows a lot more:

    1. The option -t tells cat to show TAB characters as ^I, so you can see that the indentation before line 1 is caused by a TAB.
    2. The option -v tells cat to show “nonprinting” characters visibly, which lets us see that there’s a carriage return character, shown as ^M, after a space character, following the text line 1.

      Each line of a DOS text file ends with two characters: a carriage return and a newline (line feed). After showing the carriage return visibly, cat output the newline preceded by a $ character:

    3. The option -e tells cat to mark the end of a line with $. This lets you see just where a newline falls.
  3. The third command, od -c, shows the character representation of bytes one-by-one. The -w6 option lists six bytes per line. Each line starts with the octal offset from the start of the file. You can see:

    1. The first six bytes (at offsets 0000000 through 0000005) are a TAB character (which od shows as \t), the word line and a space character.
    2. The second six bytes (from offset 0000006) are the digit 1, a space character, a carriage return character (which od shows as \r), a newline character (which od shows as \n), and the first two characters of the next line of the file, li.

      od shows the structure of a text file. The newline character — the end of the first “line” in the file — is just a character. The bytes of the next “line” start immediately after the newline. (As we’ll see later, you can insert newline characters anywhere you want to start new lines.)

    3. The last four bytes (octal offsets 0000014 through 0000017) are the letters n, e, a space, and the digit 2. There’s no carriage return, no newline. That’s because, while making the file, we typed the DOS end-of-input character CTRL-Z before pressing RETURN (ENTER) to end the line.
  4. The wc utility reports 1 line, 4 words, and 16 characters.

    1. Because there’s only one newline character, there’s only one “line”. (The second line isn’t complete.)
    2. There are four words: line, 1, line, and 2.
    3. The 16 characters include the carriage return and the newline. (You can see them in the od output, and see the the final offset — 0000020 octal, which shows the number of bytes read — is 16 decimal.) Although the TAB makes a lot of whitespace (it moves the cursor to the next “tab stop” on the terminal, as we’ll see below), it’s only a single character.

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Is {going to|gonna} be {back|again} {frequently|regularly|incessantly|steadily|ceaselessly|often|continuously} {in order to|to} {check up on|check out|inspect|investigate cross-check} new posts|
{I wanted|I needed|I want to|I need to} to thank you for this {great|excellent|fantastic|wonderful|good|very good} read!!
I {definitely|certainly|absolutely} {enjoyed|loved} every
{little bit of|bit of} it. {I have|I’ve got|I have got} you {bookmarked|book
marked|book-marked|saved as a favorite} {to check out|to look at}
new {stuff you|things you} post…|
{Hi|Hello|Hi there|What’s up}, just wanted to
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{Hi there|Hello}, I enjoy reading {all of|through} your {article|post|article post}.
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I {always|constantly|every time} spent my half an hour to read
this {blog|weblog|webpage|website|web site}’s {articles|posts|articles or reviews|content} {everyday|daily|every day|all the time} along with a {cup|mug} of
coffee.|
I {always|for all time|all the time|constantly|every time} emailed this {blog|weblog|webpage|website|web site} post
page to all my {friends|associates|contacts}, {because|since|as|for the reason that}
if like to read it {then|after that|next|afterward} my {friends|links|contacts} will
too.|
My {coder|programmer|developer} is trying to {persuade|convince} me to move to
.net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the {expenses|costs}.
But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using {Movable-type|WordPress}
on {a number of|a variety of|numerous|several|various} websites for about a year and am {nervous|anxious|worried|concerned} about switching
to another platform. I have heard {fantastic|very good|excellent|great|good} things about blogengine.net.
Is there a way I can {transfer|import} all my wordpress {content|posts} into it?
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{Hello|Hi|Hello there|Hi there|Howdy|Good day}! I could have sworn I’ve {been to|visited} {this blog|this web site|this website|this
site|your blog} before but after {browsing through|going through|looking
at} {some of the|a few of the|many of the} {posts|articles} I
realized it’s new to me. {Anyways|Anyhow|Nonetheless|Regardless}, I’m {definitely|certainly} {happy|pleased|delighted} {I found|I
discovered|I came across|I stumbled upon} it and I’ll be {bookmarking|book-marking} it and checking back {frequently|regularly|often}!|
{Terrific|Great|Wonderful} {article|work}! {This is|That is} {the type
of|the kind of} {information|info} {that are
meant to|that are supposed to|that should} be shared {around the|across the}
{web|internet|net}. {Disgrace|Shame} on {the {seek|search} engines|Google} for {now not|not|no
longer} positioning this {post|submit|publish|put up} {upper|higher}!

Come on over and {talk over with|discuss with|seek advice from|visit|consult with} my
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Heya {i’m|i am} for the first time here. I {came
across|found} this board and I find It {truly|really} useful & it helped me out {a lot|much}.
I hope to give something back and {help|aid} others like you {helped|aided} me.|
{Hi|Hello|Hi there|Hello there|Howdy|Greetings}, {I think|I believe|I do believe|I
do think|There’s no doubt that} {your site|your website|your web site|your blog} {might be|may be|could be|could possibly be} having {browser|internet browser|web browser} compatibility {issues|problems}.
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overlapping issues. {I just|I simply|I merely} wanted to {give you a|provide you with a}
quick heads up! {Other than that|Apart from that|Besides that|Aside from that}, {fantastic|wonderful|great|excellent}
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might|I’d} state. {This is|That is} the {first|very first} time I frequented your {web page|website
page} and {to this point|so far|thus far|up to now}?
I {amazed|surprised} with the {research|analysis} you made to {create|make} {this actual|this particular} {post|submit|publish|put
up} {incredible|amazing|extraordinary}. {Great|Wonderful|Fantastic|Magnificent|Excellent} {task|process|activity|job}!|
Heya {i’m|i am} for {the primary|the first} time here.
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helped me out {a lot|much}. {I am hoping|I hope|I’m hoping} {to give|to offer|to provide|to present}
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for more soon.|
I {always|all the time|every time} used to {read|study} {article|post|piece of writing|paragraph} in news
papers but now as I am a user of {internet|web|net} {so|thus|therefore} from now I am using net for {articles|posts|articles or reviews|content},
thanks to web.|
Your {way|method|means|mode} of {describing|explaining|telling} {everything|all|the whole thing} in this {article|post|piece of writing|paragraph} is {really|actually|in fact|truly|genuinely} {nice|pleasant|good|fastidious}, {all|every one} {can|be able to|be capable of} {easily|without difficulty|effortlessly|simply} {understand|know|be aware
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{Hi|Hello} there, {I found|I discovered} your {blog|website|web site|site} {by means of|via|by the use of|by way of} Google {at the same
time as|whilst|even as|while} {searching for|looking for} a {similar|comparable|related} {topic|matter|subject}, your {site|web
site|website} {got here|came} up, it {looks|appears|seems|seems to be|appears to be like} {good|great}.
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{Hello|Hi} there, {simply|just} {turned into|became|was|become|changed into} {aware of|alert to} your {blog|weblog} {thru|through|via} Google,
{and found|and located} that {it is|it’s} {really|truly} informative.
{I’m|I am} {gonna|going to} {watch out|be careful}
for brussels. {I will|I’ll} {appreciate|be grateful}
{if you|should you|when you|in the event you|in case you|for those who|if you happen to} {continue|proceed} this {in future}.
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be|can be|will likely be} benefited {from your|out of your} writing.
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{I am|I’m} curious to find out what blog {system|platform}
{you have been|you happen to be|you are|you’re} {working with|utilizing|using}?

I’m {experiencing|having} some {minor|small} security {problems|issues} with my latest {site|website|blog} and {I would|I’d} like to find something more {safe|risk-free|safeguarded|secure}.

Do you have any {solutions|suggestions|recommendations}?|
{I am|I’m} {extremely|really} impressed with your writing
skills {and also|as well as} with the layout on your
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yourself? {Either way|Anyway} keep up the {nice|excellent} quality writing, {it’s|it is} rare to
see a {nice|great} blog like this one {these days|nowadays|today}.|
{I am|I’m} {extremely|really} {inspired|impressed} {with your|together with
your|along with your} writing {talents|skills|abilities} {and also|as {smartly|well|neatly} as} with the {layout|format|structure} {for
your|on your|in your|to your} {blog|weblog}. {Is this|Is that this}
a paid {subject|topic|subject matter|theme} or did you {customize|modify} it {yourself|your self}?

{Either way|Anyway} {stay|keep} up the {nice|excellent} {quality|high quality} writing,
{it’s|it is} {rare|uncommon} {to peer|to see|to look} a {nice|great} {blog|weblog} like this one {these days|nowadays|today}..|
{Hi|Hello}, Neat post. {There is|There’s} {a problem|an issue} {with your|together with your|along with your} {site|web site|website} in {internet|web} explorer, {may|might|could|would} {check|test}
this? IE {still|nonetheless} is the {marketplace|market}
{leader|chief} and {a large|a good|a big|a huge} {part of|section of|component to|portion of|component of|element of} {other folks|folks|other people|people} will {leave out|omit|miss|pass over} your {great|wonderful|fantastic|magnificent|excellent} writing {due to|because
of} this problem.|
{I’m|I am} not sure where {you are|you’re} getting your {info|information}, but
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more} or understanding more. Thanks for {great|wonderful|fantastic|magnificent|excellent}
{information|info} I was looking for this {information|info} for my mission.|
{Hi|Hello}, i think that i saw you visited my {blog|weblog|website|web site|site} {so|thus} i came to “return the favor”.{I am|I’m}
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