dcsimg

Drizzle: Rethinking the MySQL Database Kernel

Drizzle is a re-thought and re-worked version of the MySQL kernel designed specifically for high-performance, high-concurrency environments. In this exclusive article, MySQL guru Jeremy Zawodny takes an inside look at the goals and state of Drizzle development.

If you visit the Drizzle project homepage, it explains:

Drizzle is building a database optimized for cloud and [network] applications. [Drizzle] is being designed for massive concurrency on modern multi-cpu/core architectures. The code is originally derived from MySQL.

In other words, Drizzle is a re-thought and re-worked version of the MySQL kernel designed specifically for high-performance, high-concurrency environments. The goal is to make Drizzle an extensible database kernel that runs extremely fast on emerging hardware.

Much like Linux is a fast kernel that can be extended with loadable modules (notably filesystems and device drivers, among others), Drizzle explicitly says “no” to building in some features, instead pushing them out of the core and into plug-ins. This separation allows Drizzle to focus on only the most essential features of a modern database kernel. In fact, it’s almost a become a joke on the Drizzle mailing list that someone will say “Make it a plugin!” when anyone questions removing functionality from the server.

At this point you may be wondering who would be crazy enough to think that MySQL, known for its speed and agility, needs to be radically re-worked. After all, it’s been the dominant open source relational database for the better part of a decade now.

The Drizzle project is headed by Brian Aker, the former director of architecture for MySQL. Aker now works in the Office of the Chief Technology Officer at Sun (soon to be Oracle) and heads up a team of developers working on Drizzle and a few other projects (see one of Aker’s early posts on Drizzle). Some of those developers are Sun employees (Eric Day, Jay Pipes, Monty Taylor, Mark Atwood, and others), while others are either volunteers or contributing to Drizzle on behalf of their employer. Toru Maesaka of Mixi is one such developer.

A lot of the Drizzle work is driven by significant changes in hardware that have occurred since widespread adoption of MySQL began. Before discussing what Drizzle is and is not, it’s important to understand a bit about the last 5-7 years of evolution in hardware and systems and the challenges those presented to MySQL users, especially those who were constantly pushing the envelope of what’s possible.

Moore’s Law Turned Sideways

The most significant change in recent hardware history is that Moore’s Law took a surprising turn. For years, developers have been able to depend on the clock speed of CPUs doubling roughly every 18 months. In other words, the code you ran in early 2001 would be more than twice as fast if you simply upgraded the CPU in your server in late 2002. Why “more than” twice as fast? Not only did clock speeds increase, changes in the architecture of CPUs made them more efficient, too: larger caches, more registers, better instruction pipelines, and so on.

This doubling trend went on for so long that Moore’s Law was practically law and something destined to continue for the foreseeable future. But then something strange happened a couple years ago. Instead of seeing 4 GHz CPUs appear to replace 3.2 GHz CPUs, Intel and AMD started pushing multi-core CPUs that ran at slower clock speeds. Effectively, the megahertz and gigahertz game had come to an end. Instead of pure “vertical” scaling, Moore’s Law had been redirected along a different axis: horizontal scaling.

At the 2009 MySQL Conference, Sun co-founder Andy Bechtolsheim delivered a keynote presentation called The Solid State Storage Revolution, which contained a chart plotting CPU clock speeds over the last 20 years or so. It illustrated this sudden change very clearly and removed any doubt about where things are headed. (Sadly, his slides are not available online).

In a sense this isn’t new. Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) has been around for years now in the form of motherboards with two or four physically separate CPUs. But having multiple CPU cores on the same physical chip was a new approach. Intel previewed the future with the introduction of Hyper-Threadingon some Pentium 4 CPUs. The technology allowed a single CPU to run two execution threads in parallel. It’s not the same as having two physical cores on the same chip, but it was a nice boost at the time.

With Moore’s Law overturned, the new road to efficiency and performance is to design for concurrency and parallelism. Any problem that can be split into sub-problems and executed in parallel fits this new world very well. As you’ll see momentarily, there are places where MySQL is able to exploit multi-core well, but others in which it was of no help at all.

RAID and RAM

As with all things hardware, the cost of running substantial RAID arrays (6-12 disks) with battery-backed write caches has dropped substantially. That doesn’t mean that disk I/O isn’t still the single biggest bottleneck in large databases—it is. Any time your data size grows substantially beyond what can fit in RAM, I/O bottlenecks appear. But today’s “commodity” hardware lets you push that barrier out quite a long way.

Thanks to commodity 64-bit CPUs, it’s not hard to find a server than can be loaded with 64 GB or even 128 GB of memory. That alone is sufficient to keep a very large percentage of MySQL deployments from having to worry about going to disk that often. But what about those really big deployments?

The transfer rates of modern disks and their controllers is measured hundreds of megabytes per second. But that’s assuming a best case scenario: linear (sequential) reads or writes. The real killer is random disk I/O. Any time the disk head needs to move (seek), you incur a delay of several milliseconds. Event the fastest hard disks available claim average seek times in the 4 ms range. Expecting more than about 200 seeks per second is unrealistic. In fact, the rule of thumb for years has been not to expect more than about 100 I/O operations (iops) from a single spindle.

Having larger disk arrays means being able to perform a greater number of iops per second: typically something like (N/2)*100 where N is the number of disks. You must divide by two because of mirroring. In a typical setup of 12 disks, there are 6 mirrored pairs (RAID-1) and stripe (RAID-0) data across them. This is commonly referred to as RAID 1+0.

Using this model, the only way to get another 200 iops out of your array (without sacrificing data integrity) is to add two or four more disks. Like Moore’s Law, this had been true for a very long time. But just like Moore’s Law, the storage game has recently changed in a most unexpected way.

Comments on "Drizzle: Rethinking the MySQL Database Kernel"

Hi there mates, its wonderful post concerning cultureand fully explained, kesep it up all the
time.

My web bblog … tadallafil from canadian pharmacies on line

hkmzmjhf

whltv3gy

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance]insurance[/url]

jntau7ey

zrf467cy

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
http://hyundai-club.com.ua/converse.php?u=2449&u2=25182
http://argumenti.ru/world/2013/03/242274
http://www.zoofirma.ru/knigi/biota-japonskogo-morja/6629-synidotea-sculpta-gurjanova-1955.html

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

sic57b79

s8dah0hz

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance]insurance[/url]

nstcckcp

xzqcly7s

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://hyundai-club.com.ua/converse.php?u=2449&u2=25182
http://www.club-lexus.ru/faq/index.php?article=235
http://svadba.net.ru/catalog/4592

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
http://sci-lib.com/book002010.html
http://www.annews.ru/news/detail.php?ID=99879
http://paraisol.ru/country/hotel/hotels_3658.html

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

o01fez2k

tdqs5y4d

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance]insurance[/url]

vskmnuc2

d5c12b1a

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://rylibrary.narod.ru/dop/v-eti-volosy-hvatayut-ischut-obnimayut.html
http://www.zoofirma.ru/knigi/biota-japonskogo-morja/6629-synidotea-sculpta-gurjanova-1955.html
http://ryazankreml.ru/news/2007/?p=5

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://www.best-stroy.ru/catalog/r22/r22_12
http://svadba.net.ru/catalog/4592
http://rusrep.ru/article/2011/07/15/science_new

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://www.vremya.ru/2008/13/10/196565.html
http://mytop-in.net/rating/ternopol/business_and_finances/work/
http://www.hr-portal.ru/pages/raboch/Zalivschik_kamnelitejnyh_izdelij_3-go_razryada.php

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
http://www.zavodsd.ru/tak_nazyvaemaya_jestkaya_gidro_p.html
http://rusk.ru/st.php?idar=53927
http://www.best-stroy.ru/catalog/r22/r22_12

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://www.profile.ru/politics/mir/item/80001
http://pobeda.ru/category/predstoyatel/page/2
http://ooo-vv.ru/samovsasyvayushhie/centrobezhnye-samovsasyvayushhie-odnostupenchatye-nasosy-espa-nadorself.html

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

c1q6ypxq

vi1flepj

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance]insurance[/url]

ilxkkv99

elnwsbx4

What’s up mates, how is the whole thing, and what you desire to say about this piece of writing, in my view its actually remarkable for me.

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
http://polpred.com/?ns=1&ns_id=859336
http://www.rznodb.ru/ganzens/ganz_htm/prinzessa.htm
http://www.hrono.ru/sobyt/1500sob/1554astrah.php

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
http://scobro.ru/gradostroitelniy-kodeks/950-56.html
http://www.library.ru/1/madb/projects/selo/aif_021204.php
http://ovesti.ru/society/3915-aviakompaniya-sibir-oshtrafovana-za-zaderzhku-dvuh-reysov.html

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

Greetings! Very helpful advice within this article! It’s thhe little changes that produce the greatest changes.
Thanks a lot for sharing!

Also visit mmy page :: cialisfrom canadadrug

j6dp7bjj

hb7mq1tg

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance]insurance[/url]

flmosoqq

a2na1f8a

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://www.best-stroy.ru/catalog/r6/r6_9
http://www.club-lexus.ru/faq/index.php?article=235
http://elektrotorg.com/books/kommer4eskaya_elektroenergetik/t/2.html

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://ryazankreml.ru/news/2007/?p=5
http://www.r52.ru/news/23081/
http://www.1777.ru/stavropol/lenta.php?id=29&page=2

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.

I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday. I be taught something tougher on completely different blogs everyday.
I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.
http://hyundai-club.com.ua/converse.php?u=2449&u2=25182
http://te.ua/sn/banews-vlast/syn_glavy_medzhlisa_vozvodit_samostroi_na_territorii_bahchisaraiskogo_dvorca.html
http://www.azoli.ru/price.yves_saint_laurent_opium.html

I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this. I’m really loving the new Zune, and hope this.

n2aj2dbi

eq1jycj7

[url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insurance]insurance[/url]

fqbsd16e

opvnmle8

Hi, always i used to check website posts here early in the
morning, for the reason that i enjoy to gain knowledge of more and more.

Hi there colleagues, how is everything, and
what you would like to say concerning this article,
in my view its in fact amazing in support of me.

What’s up it’s me, I am also visiting this website daily, this web site is actually
good and the people are genuinely sharing pleasant thoughts.

Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement account it.
Look advanced to far added agreeable from you! By the way, how can we communicate?

My webpage: buy cialis generic canada

We came across a cool internet site that you could get pleasure from. Take a appear should you want.

Hi, I do think this is an excellent site. I stumbledupon it ;) I may come
back once again since I bookmarked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to help
other people.

Also visit my blog post :: giuseppe zanotti outlet

This piece of writing will assist the internet viewers for
setting uup new webpage or even a blog from start to end.

Feel free to surf tto my page :: canada viagra prices

Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Many thanks, However I am experiencing problems with your RSS.
I don’t understand why I can’t join it. Is there anybody getting similar RSS issues?
Anyone that knows the answer will you kindly respond?

Thanx!!

excellent issues altogether, you just gained a new reader.
What could you recommend in regards to your publish that
you just made some days ago? Any certain?

my website – canadian generic cialis reviews

Wow, this piece of writing is nice, my younger sister
is analyzing these things, so I am going to
tell her.

my webpage; pharmacy canada viagra

I’m amazed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s
equally educative and engaging, and let me
tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about.

I’m very happy I stumbled across this in my hunt for something relating
to this.

Feel free to surf to my web-site; cialis canada store

Thank you for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your next write ups
thanks once again.

Here is my site; Canada viagria

Whoa! This blog looks just like my old one! It’s on a
completely different topic but it has pretty much the same page layout and
design. Wonderful choice of colors!

Here is my web blog :: Citrate in viagra

Fine way of telling, and good paragraph to get facts
on the topic of my presentation subject matter, which
i am going to deliver in academy.

my page … Daily cialis canadian pharmacy

First of all I would like to say superb blog! I had a
quick question that I’d like to ask if you do not mind.
I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your mind prior to
writing. I have had difficulty clearing my thoughts in getting my ideas out there.
I do enjoy writing however it just seems like the
first 10 to 15 minutes are lost just trying to figure out how to
begin. Any suggestions or tips? Thanks!

Also visit my web-site; Canadian pharmacies that sell brand cialis

I think what you said made a bunch of sense.
However, what about this? what if you added a little information? I ain’t saying your
content isn’t good., but suppose you added a title that makes people desire more?
I mean Drizzle: Rethinking the MySQL Database Kernel | Linux Magazine is kinda boring.
You should glance at Yahoo’s home page and see how they create
post headlines to grab viewers to open the links.
You might add a video or a related picture or two to get people excited about everything’ve got to say.
Just my opinion, it would make your website a little livelier.

My web-site Buying cialis online from reputable sources

Hi there! Do you use Twitter? I’d like to follow you if that would be ok.
I’m absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.

Here is my web blog; buying viagra from canada

If you desire to get a great deal from this post
then you have to apply such strategies to your won website.

Feel free to visit my website; Buying viagra using pay pal

This web site certainly has all of the info I needed concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask.

my page Sildenafil citrate 100 mg in usa

Wonderful work! That is the type of information that are supposed
to be shared around the internet. Disgrace on the seek engines for now not positioning this submit higher!
Come on over and visit my website . Thank you =)

Also visit my website – canadian pharmstore

Prada Gauffre Tote bag is a wondrous and beautiful extension of our very personalities.
Within 2 years, Miuccia won two fashion awards awards, in 1993 she received an international reward from the Council of Fashion Designers
of America, and then in 1995 she also won the “Designer of the Year”
Award. The dark side of the male be experienced in the form
of sexual addictions, aggressiveness, dark anger, frustration and destructiveness.

Feel free to visit my weblog – prada bags outlet

Thanks for any other informative web site. Where else may I am getting that kind of info written in such an ideal method?
I have a mission that I am just now working on, and I’ve been on the glance out for such info.

Also visit my web blog; Canada drugs viagra

Hi there very nice website!! Guy .. Beautiful ..

Amazing .. I will bookmark your website and take the feeds also?
I am happy to search out a lot of helpful info right here in the put up, we want develop more techniques on this regard, thanks for sharing.
. . . . .

my blog :: Can you buy otc viagra in canada without a prescription

My brother advised I would personally potentially such as this web site. He or she had been entirely perfect. This specific release essentially created my evening. You can not consider the amount of time I had spent with this information! Thanks a lot! My brother advised I would personally potentially such as this web site. He or she had been entirely perfect. This specific release essentially created my evening. You can not consider the amount of time I had spent with this information! Thanks a lot!

What’s up mates, how is all, and what you would like to say concerning this piece of writing, in my view its in fact remarkable
in support of me.

Here is my weblog; canadian drug store online

hi!,I like your writing very a lot! percentage wee communicate extra aout your post on AOL?
I require a spescialist on this house to resolve my problem.
May be that’s you! Taking a look forward to peer you.

Alsoo visiot my webpage: his comment is here

Good day! This post could not be written any better! Reading through this post reminds me of my good
old room mate! He always kept talking about this.
I will forward this page to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read.
Many thanks for sharing!

Look into my homepage; Viagra online

Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it’s really informative.
I’m gonna watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future.
Lots of people will be benefited from your writing.
Cheers!

Visit my weblog; find cheap canadian drugs

Leave a Reply