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Introduction to iSCSI

iSCSI is one of the hottest topics in Storage because it allows you to create centralized SANs using TCP networks rather than Fibre Channel (FC) networks. Get a handle on the main iSCSI concepts and terminology.

SANs (Storage Area Networks) are popular as a storage system for many reasons. Most commonly they are popular because the storage is centralized allowing easier management, easier maintenance, very good performance, and it has a good price/performance ratio. Typical SANs are constructed using Fibre Channel (FC) networks and FC hard drives, although SATA, SAS, and SSD drives are used in SANs today.

FC storage has very good performance from the storage hardware to the client using FC networks networks at 2Gb/s, 4Gb/s, and now 8 Gb/s speeds. But FC based SANs require an FC card in each client as well as an FC network (switches) in addition to the normal TCP networks that clients have, adding cost and complexity to servers.

FC based SANs are popular because of very good performance and all of the benefits of centralized storage. But at the same time, they can be rather expensive and complex. But, there is the option of using iSCSI for SANs keeping the benefits of SANs and reducing the complexity because only a TCP network is needed.

SAN Introduction

Virtually every server needs some sort of storage and the associated backup devices and management software. Originally this meant that every server had its own storage, its own backup device, its own management tools, its own security, etc. as show below in Figure 1. This configuration is commonly called Direct Attached Storage (DAS).




Figure 1: DAS Configuration

With a small number of servers in fairly close proximity to each other, this arrangement can be managed fairly easily with a relatively small staff. But as the number of servers grew and they became geographically dispersed, people realized that this approach would not work (i.e. it doesn’t scale well). Something new was needed and that something was a Storage Area Network (SAN).

In a SAN topology the storage is centralized allowing all of the associated hardware and software to be centralized as well. Consequently, you have a single set of storage devices, a single backup system, a single set of management tools, a single set of security devices, etc. The key to enabling SANs is the network. Figure 2 below illustrates the SAN topology with the SAN Network shown in blue.

Figure 2: SAN Configuration
Figure 2: SAN Configuration

Notice that each server does not have any local storage nor a local backup device, etc., with these devices and services being provided by the centralized SAN. In many cases, people still put a local drive in the servers for an OS but they don’t back up this drive.

Classic SANs use Fibre Channel (FC) networks to connect the centralized storage to the servers. This involved putting an HBA (Host Based Adapter) in each server and connecting it to the SAN network. There are multiple options for the FC network topologies, but in many cases they involve FC switches. Then the SAN software allocates storage for each server from its pool of storage and the server can partition, format, and use its storage as it sees fit. The FC network primarily transmits storage commands (most likely SCSI) from the servers to the storage but the advantage of FC is that the performance is so much better than existing networks (i.e. TCP).

The original speed of FC networks was 2 Gbps (400 MB/s in full duplex) and was deployed in the 2001 time frame. At that time Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) was the most common network with GigE networks only becoming available. GigE was half the speed of 2Gbps FC at best and Fast Ethernet was 1/20 the speed of 2 Gbps FC networks. In the 2005 time frame, 4 Gbps FC networks were introduced. At that time, GigE was the most prevalent network but it was 1/4 the speed of 4 Gbps FC. Then in 2008, 8 Gbps FC networks were introduced, but by that time, 10GigE networks were available but there were a bit expensive. However, from 2001 to 2005 there was a wholesale switch from Fast Ethernet to GigE, so perhaps 10GigE prices could come down to the point where they are competitive with GigE?

iSCSI

iSCSI stands for Internet Small Computer System Interface and is an Internet Protocol (IP) based storage networking protocol. The basic concept is to take SCSI commands and encapsulate them in TCP/IP packets to transmit data from the storage drives to the server. Since TCP packets can be lost and retransmitted they don’t have to arrive in order, iSCSI also has to keep track of incoming packets to make sure that all of the SCSI commands are queued in the correct order.

iSCSI was originally started by IBM and was developed as a proof of concept in 1998. In March 2000, the first draft of the iSCSI standard was presented to the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force). IBM offered iSCSI based storage devices in July 2001 even before the iSCSI specification was passed by the IP Storage Working Group in August 2002.

There are several fundamental concepts that explain the majority of how iSCSI functions. The first is the target. It is simply the storage device that contains the physical storage. The target can be hardware based or, more likely, software based. The second concept is the initiator which is the server, or client, which “uses” the storage block from the target. Again, the target can be hardware based or, more likely, software based.

iSCSI is fundamentally a Storage Area Network (SAN) protocol just as Fibre Channel. The key difference is that FC uses a specialized (FC) network and iSCSI can just use TCP networks. This allows you to use a single network for storage data and other communication as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: SAN Configuration
Figure 3: SAN Configuration

One of the reasons that FC based SANs are so successful is that FC networks are faster than GigE by several times and they are much cheaper than 10GigE. But, over the last year or so, iSCSI has been gaining in popularity for three reasons:


  • The price of iSCSI configurations can be much less than FC configurations. The iSCSI performance is not as good as 8 Gpbs FC in general, but better than 4 Gbps FC, but if the performance of iSCSI based GigE SANs is good enough, the possibly lower price of iSCSI SANs can make them very attractive.
  • Using a single network (as in iSCSI) can be less complex than multiple networks (as in TCP and FC).
  • For many years the price of 10GigE networks has been much greater than FC networks. But the price of 10GigE is finally coming down to the point where it can be competitive with FC networks. The use of 10GigE can also mean that iSCSI can be faster than FC networks.

iSCSI OS Support (Mostly About Linux)

Many Operating Systems (OS’s) support iSCSI for both targets and initiators. The first OS with iSCSI support in some form was AIX (IBM did start iSCSI development after all), followed by Windows, Netware, HP-UX, Solaris, and then Linux (and a bunch of others after that).

There are several Linux iSCSI projects. An iSCSI initiator that was developed by Cisco is available as open-source and has served as the basis for other projects. There are patches for 2.4 and 2.6 kernels, although the 2.6 kernel series has iSCSI already in it. Many Linux distributions ship with the initiator already in the kernel. There is also a project originally developed by Intel and is available as open-source.

A fork of an original project called the Ardistech iSCSI project, provides a target package with an eye towards porting it to the Linux 2.6 kernel and adding features to it (the original Ardistech iSCSI target package has not been developed for some time and was 2.4 based, but it is very difficult to find). Then this project was combined with the iSCSI initiator project to develop a combined initiator and target package for Linux. This package was under very active development and was combined with the Linux-iSCSI project to create one of the most complete and supported iSCSI packages in Linux. Another iSCSI packages that is under heavy development and support for 2.6 kernels is the iSCSI Enterprise Target project.

There are lots of articles and some tutorials on using iSCSI with Linux around the Internet. Some of the better articles are:


  • This article specifically presents how to use iSCSI on Ubuntu 9.04 as both an initiator and target. But the general configuration instructions are the same as other distributions.
  • This article is a bit old and might not be applicable, but it does show the basic concepts for enabling iSCSI on Linux.
  • For setting up iSCSI on CentOS, this article can be used to help guide you. It uses the Open-iSCSI packages to provide the iSCSI capability.

Another option is to use a pre-packaged distribution that is focused on storage called OpenFiler. It allows you to build a NAS box or an iSCSI initiator along with CIFS support. You just need an x86 or x86_64 systems with 512MB of memory, 1GB of space for the OS, and a supported network card. Then you can add as much storage to the server as you like and manage it as NAS storage or iSCSI storage. It’s a very nice setup for a dedicated storage system. There is even a YouTube video that presents how to use OpenFiler with iSCSI storage.

Summary

iSCSI is a very hot topic right now because of many reasons. The combination of the trends where storage is becoming cheaper every day (2TB drives are just appearing) and 10GigE networks are becoming affordable, are helping to drive the popularity of iSCSI. But the fact that Linux has robust iSCSI packages available is also helping to drive iSCSI adoption.

This is just a quick introduction to iSCSI with an eye toward Linux. Linux has good iSCSI packages that allow very robust configurations to be created (while not presented here, you can also use a capability called “multi-pathing” to create a more robust and fault tolerant SAN network).

Watch for future articles that talk more about iSCSI in Linux as well as strategies for deploying iSCSI.

Comments on "Introduction to iSCSI"

piavka

I can\’t believe that you mixed the iscsi initiator and target roles – this is shame to have such a dummy and miss informative article on linux-mag.

Reply
jsoda

seriously? an article on iscsi that mixes up target and initiator? wow.

Reply
laytonjb

Mea maxima culpa. I always get the initiator and target backwards. I have fixed the text and will fix Figure 3 in a few hours.

I have also changed the wording in a few places where it wasn\’t as accurate as it should have been.

Jeff

Reply
viralnexxus

I think Jeff did a great job on introducing me to iSCSI and SANS. Mistakes will always be made, but bashing him sarcastically instead of correcting him politely shows a serious lack of class. Just my opinion.

-Victor

Reply
normalex

100% agree with viralnexxus.

Reply
dotcomstu

What happens if the SAN dies?

This setup would benefit from having a DRBD network mirror to remove the single point of failure introduced by having all servers depending on the one SAN machine: http://www.drbd.org/

Reply
chammitt

also, you would typically want to have a separate Ethernet Network (for SAN) from your traditional Ethernet Network (for other IP traffic) for performance reasons…not just one Ethernet Network. While possible to vlan it out…if you have decent any amount of workload, your performance will suffer. But then again, if you are planning to use 2TB+ SATA drives…this might not be an issue for you. I\’d stick to the 300-450GB SAS drives personally. spindle > capacity less you are doing a huge sequential workload….which most people do not!

Reply
zodilib

I liked the article. However would love to know more about the initiator and adaptor story. Meanwhile please let me know if the network is geographically scattered can we still have a FC NAS setup ? My question must be dump,, forgive me I am just starting :)

Reply
laytonjb

@dotcomstu,

If the SAN dies, then you lose storage. Using DRDB is an option, but it\’s basically having a second network. So you could have a second SAN and achieve similar results (price and performance are TBD). But it is an option and an interesting one.

Jeff

Reply
laytonjb

@chammitt,

A very valid point about having 2 ethernet networks either physical or VLAN. I think there are two camps arguing this point. One camp wants a single big pipe for all traffic (call this the 10GigE camp) and the second camp wants a bit more redundancy and segregation of traffic. I don\’t think there is one right answer and depends upon the workload, the risk, and the desire (or need) for redundancy.

Personally, while the single (fat) line is very appealing, I would also like to have at least 1 GigE line to each server for other tasks (monitoring, imaging, etc.). As you point out, it helps reduce traffic on the iSCSI line. GigE isn\’t expensive so I don\’t see it being a problem overall. Plus, you could do multi-pathing across both lines recognizing the difference in performance.

Jeff

Reply
laytonjb

@zodilib,

The story behind initiator and target is that I got them backwards in the original post of the article. I think I fixed everything.

To be honest, I don\’t know enough about FC to know if you can run it over long distances. I\’m assuming there are companies that have WAN FC products (there are companies that do this for InfiniBand so I\’m assuming FC is the same).

Jeff

Reply
piavka

@viralnexxus,

IMHO mixing such fundamental things as iscsi initiator and target (not just in accidentalt in one place but overall in all article including the diagram) in 99% of cases indicates that the author is familiar with the subject only theoretically. I think that anyone who have actually made the simplest iscsi setup even just once, would not mix such things – but there can be exceptions of course.

My point is that I expect the author of the article not to be a novice in a subject he/she is writing about and at least have some real practical experience with the subject, also considering that it\’s posted not on authors personal blog but in a well known magazine where people reading it have certain expectations from the articles. And I don\’t mind if the article is introduction, intermediate or expert level – as long as it is fundamentally correct, while minor mistakes I\’m fine with of course.

I\’m sorry for such a response ,I should have been much more polite,
but honestly I never remember myself of ever writing such a bashing comment before.

Reply
bobgjunga

What about the difference in latency between FC and GigE? 10 GigE? I think that bandwidth determines how many severs you can have on a SAN without performance degradation but latency limits the maximum single server performance.

So what is the performance comparison of having a MySQL data folder on..

  • a local 15k rpm SAS dirve
  • a FC SAN drive
  • a 15k rpm SAS dirve over a 1 GigE iSCSI SAN
  • –BobG

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